Communications and Network Security is one the most important domains. It focuses on data integrity, confidentiality, and availability in motion. This domain covers communication protocols like simplex, full-duplex and half-duplex. It also discusses LANs and WANs as well as GANs and PANs.
Next, it covers Networking. The OSI (open-system interconnection) model has 7 layers: Physical, Data Link Network, Transport, Session and Presentation. It also includes the TCP/IP model which consists of Network Access, Internet and Host-to–Host transport. Application. It covers protocols such as TCP and UDP, ICMP. Telnet. FTP, SSH. SMTP. DNS, HTTP, HTTPS. POP, IMAP.
Next, it will cover Software-defined networking (SDN), which separates the router’s control plane and the data (forwarding). OpenFlow is the most well-known protocol in this area. It can allow for switching rules to be defined and updated at a central controller, among other capabilities. OpenFlow is a TCP protocol which uses transport layer security (TLS). The 802.11 wireless standard is the most popular form of wireless data networking.
Two methods of sending radio traffic are frequency-hopping spread spectrum, (FHSS), and direct-sequence spreading spectrum (DSSS). The wired equivalent privacy protocol (WEP) was a first attempt to provide 802.11 wireless security. It was first ratified in 1999.
It covers repeaters, hubs and bridges, switches, VLANs routers firewalls proxy firewalls, modem, and VLANs. An authentication protocol authenticates an identity claim across the network. A network eavesdropper could sniff all packets between the client and the authentication server so the protocol should be secure.
It also covers VPN and PPP, IPSec SSL, TLS, and SSL. Remote access is an important part of digitalization. This includes DSL, Cable modems and Remote desktops. Screen Scraping, Instant messaging, PDAs, and Remote Desktops.